Thursday, 16 January 2014


The École normale supérieure (French pronunciation: ​[ekɔl nɔʁmal sypeʁjœʁ]; also known as Normale sup’Normale, and ENS) is aFrench grande école (higher education establishment outside the mainstream framework of the public universities system). The ENS was initially conceived during the French Revolution,[2] and it was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of teachers, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment. It has since developed into an elite institution which has become a platform for many of France's brightest young people to pursue high-level careers in government and academia and symbolizes the independence of mind.

Founded in 1793, reformed by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections : Sciences (Mathematics, Physical, Chemistry, Computational, Biology, Geology, and Medicine) and Humanities (Letters and human and social sciences : Literature, Latin and Greek, Archaeology, Philosophy, History, Geography, Law, Economy, Political sciences, Sociology, Psychology, Public Administration). ENS has a gymnasium but no sport section but the university-sister of ENS-Cachan has a sport-section to train the elite of sport-teachers and even a design section.
ENS has a thorough selection process which requires hard work and willpower (with written and oral tests), excellence and prestige to train students to a high level, a rigorous and methodical mind and an original personality who will be the elite of society with a view to culture, scientific research (in sciences and humanities) and power. ENS students are paid and are students and officials at the same time.

The École Polytechnique (commonly known as Polytechnique or by the nickname X) is a French public institution of higher education and research, located in Palaiseau near Paris.
Polytechnique is considered to be one of the most selective and prestigious French Grandes écoles,[2][3] and is renowned for its four-year[4] undergraduate-postgraduate « Ingénieur Polytechnicien » degree in science and engineering.[5] Known for its extremely competitive entrance examination, students are usually admitted after two years of highly selective university-level preparation in mathematics and physics. In addition to the 2,000 polytechnic engineer students, the institution welcomes about 439 master students and 572 doctoral students, for a total enrollment of 2,900.[1]
Polytechnique was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution,[6] and became a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Today, the institution still runs under the supervision of the French ministry of Defence. Initially located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the establishment was moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau, southwest of Paris.[7]
Polytechnique is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading Paris-area engineering colleges established in 2007. Since 1995, Polytechnique has admitted a significant number of international applicants to its polytechnic engineer program,[8][9] and 20% of each cohort are foreign students.[10] Polytechnique is ranked among the best universities in the world. Among its alumni are two Nobel prizes winners, one Fields Medal, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies.

It was established in 1971 following the division of the University of Paris (Sorbonne), and is a principal heir to Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. The French cultural revolution of 1968, commonly known as "the French May", resulted in the division of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris, into thirteen autonomous universities.
UPMC is the largest scientific and medical complex in France, active in many fields of research with scope and achievements at the highest level, as demonstrated by the many awards regularly won by UPMC researchers, and the many international partnerships it maintains across all five continents.[1] Several university rankings have regularly put UPMC at the 1st place in France, and it has been ranked as one of the top universities in the world. The ARWU has ranked UPMC as the 1st in France, 6th in Europe and 37th in the world and also 5th in the field of mathematics, 41st in the field of physics, 14th in the field of natural sciences and between 51st to 75th in the world in the field of engineering, technology and computer science.

Paris-Sud was originally part of the University of Paris, which was subsequently split into several universities. After World War 2, the rapid growth of nuclear physics and chemistry meant that research needed more and more powerful accelerators, which required large areas. The Université de Paris, the École Normale Supérieure and the Collège de France looked for space in the south of Paris near Orsay. Later some of the teaching activity of the Faculty of Sciences in Paris was transferred to Orsay. The rapid increase of students led to the independence of the Orsay Center on March 1, 1965.
Now it hosts a great number of laboratories on its large (236 ha) campus. Many of the top French laboratories are among them especially in particle physics,[1] nuclear physics,[2][3] astrophysics,[4] atomic physics and molecular physics,[5]condensed matter physics,[6] theoretical physics,[7] electronics,[8] and nanoscience and nanotechnology. University of Paris-Sud comprises some 104 research units.
About 30,000 students are currently enrolled. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes and Albert Fert, two Nobel Prize winners of physics, were affiliated to the University of Paris-Sud. A number of most renowned French mathematicians are or were affiliated to the University of Paris-Sud as well. Among them are the Fields medalists Laurent LafforgueJean-Christophe Yoccoz,Wendelin Werner and Ngô Bảo Châu.
Paris-Sud also comprises biology and chemistry laboratories, engineering and technology schools and has established partnerships with many of the surrounding technology centres and Grandes Ecoles. It also includes Schools of Law, Economics and Management.

Paris Diderot University - Paris 7, also known as Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, is a leading French University[1] located inParisFrance. It is one of the heirs of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris (together with Paris 6), which, founded in the mid-12th century, was one of the earliest universities established in Europe. It adopted its current name in 1994.
The University is famous for its teaching in science, especially in mathematics.[2] Indeed many fundamental results of the theory of Probability[3] have been discovered at one of its research centers, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires (Laboratory of Probability and Random Models).
But the University also hosts many others disciplines: currently, there are 2300 educators and researchers, 1100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanitiesscience, and medicine.[4] That's why it always has been ranked as one of the three best French Universities.
Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité which is a Public Institution for Scientific Cooperation bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes.[5]
Formerly based at the Jussieu Campus in the 5th arrondissement, the University moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighborhood. The first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has many facilities in Paris, and two in other parts of the general area. By 2012, the University will complete its move and will be situated only in its new ultra-modern campus.

The École normale supérieure de Lyon (also known as ENS LyonENSL or Normale Sup' Lyon) is a highly selective grande école located in LyonFrance. As one of France's three Écoles normales supérieures, ENS Lyon is associated with a strong French tradition of excellence and public service. It trains researchers and teachers in the sciences and the humanities. It is considered as one of the three most prestigious and best French universities along with its sister the "École normale supérieure de Paris" and theÉcole Polytechnique, and is ranked as the 100th[1] in the world.

Joseph Fourier University is also the 4th best university in Engineering & IT nationally and 115th globally in QS World University Rankings.[2] The origins of this scientific university can be traced all the way back to 1811 when the scientist Joseph Fourier established a faculty of science in Grenoble.
Nowadays more than 18,000 undergraduate and graduate students participate to the life of this university. More than 2,000 are international or exchange students. Joseph Fourier University is not only famous for its alumni but also for its commitment to fundamental as well as applied research and innovation. Part of the university is the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble (OSUG), a leading institution in the field of earth, space and environmental sciences.

The university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial Cityof Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and later converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poetAngelus Silesius (1624–1677)
The Lutheran German university still persisted even after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681 (one famous student wasJohann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1770/71), but mainly turned into a French university during the French Revolution.
The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the return ofAlsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was greatly expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place.
During the Second World War, when France was occupied, personnel and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred toClermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created.
In 1970, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions:
These were, however, reunited in 2009, a process that should finish in 2012, and were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.

Created by a decree of the King's Counsel on March 19, 1783, the first school of mines was located in the Hôtel de la Monnaie, in Paris.
This school disappeared at the beginning of the French Revolution but was re-established by a decree of the Committee of Public Safetyin 1794, the 13th messidor year II. It moved to Savoie, after a decree of the consuls the 23rd pluviôse year X (1802).
After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, the school moved to the Hôtel de Vendôme (all along the Jardin du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement of Paris). From the sixties it also has annexes in FontainebleauÉvry and Sophia Antipolis (Nice).

The former vocation of Mines ParisTech (to train high-level mining engineers) evolved in the course of time considering the technological progress and society's transformation. The Mines ParisTech has now become one of the most prestigious "generalist" French engineering schools with a broad variety of disciplines. Its students are trained to have management positions, work in research and development departments, or as operations officers, etc. They receive a good training not only in technical fields (mathematics, physics) but also in economics and social sciences in order to be able to tackle all matters to be expected in a manager's daily responsibilities. Exchange programs are possible during the third semester with universities such as (Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),California Institute of Technology (Caltech), University of Hong KongNational University of Singapore (NUS), Tokyo TechSeoul National University.

The Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, also known as Université Lyon 1 or UCBL, is one of the three public universities of Lyon,France. The dominant areas of study covered by the university are science and medicine. The main administrative, teaching and research facilities are located in Villeurbanne. Other campus are the domains of Gerland, Rockefeller and Laennec. Attached to the University are the "Hospices civils de Lyon" including the "Centre hospitalier Lyon Sud", which is the largest teaching hospital in theRhône-Alpes region and second largest in France.
The university is named after the French physiologist Claude Bernard. It is the heritage of the "faculté des sciences de Lyon", founded in 1833 and the "faculté de médecine", founded in 1874.
Out of the 2630 faculty 700 are also medical practitioners at local teaching hospitals. The university is independent since January 2009. Its yearly budget is 395 Mio Euros.



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